AM masu watsawa

Kwararrun Kayan Watsa Labarai na AM:

Premium Quality

 

Tun daga shekara ta 2002, tare da cikakkiyar mafita na juyawa na rediyo na AM, Watsa shirye-shiryen FMUSER ya zuwa yanzu ya sami nasarar samar da dubban gidajen rediyon AM a duk faɗin duniya. araha AM kayayyakin watsa shirye-shirye. Mun rufe watsa watsa shirye-shiryen AM da yawa tare da ikon fitarwa har zuwa 200KW, ƙwararrun ƙwararrun gwaji na AM, benci na gwajin AM da naúrar matching impedance. Wadannan kayan aikin gidan rediyo na AM an tsara su azaman hanyar watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shiryen farashi mai tsada ga kowane mai watsa shirye-shirye, da nufin haɓaka ingancin watsa shirye-shiryen su da rage farashin gina sabon tashar watsa shirye-shiryen AM ko maye gurbin kayan aiki.

 

AM na Rack mounted da Solid State, duk ana siyarwa daga 1KW, 3KW, 5KW, 10KW, 25KW, 50KW, 100KW zuwa 200KW

 

Babban ƙarfin ƙarfi na FMUSER AM masu watsa shirye-shirye sun haɗa aikin watsa shirye-shiryen masana'antu tare da ƙira mai rahusa. Duk masu watsawa na AM suna sanye da allon taɓawa da tsarin kula da nesa don tabbatar da cewa kowane mai watsa shirye-shiryen zai iya sarrafa masu watsa su ta gaske. Amintaccen hanyar sadarwa mai dacewa da fitarwa yana ba da damar mai watsawa don daidaitawa da haɓaka ingantaccen aiki don dacewa da abubuwan watsa shirye-shirye daban-daban.

 

FMUSER 200KW AM mai watsawa 

 

#1 Cikakkun Zane-In-one: Ƙirar ƙirar ƙira ta wannan jerin masu watsawa na AM yana sa ingantaccen kulawa na zamani da ayyukan amsa gaggawar gaske. Ginshikan ajiyar waje exciter zai kunna ta atomatik bayan kuskure ya faru, yana samar da mai ɗaukar RF zuwa tsarin wutar lantarki da sarrafa sigina. Tare da waɗannan ƙwararrun masu watsawa na AM daga mai siyar da FMUSER na kasar Sin, za ku kasance masu sassauƙa da inganci don amfani da iyakataccen shimfidar radiyo don haɓaka ingantaccen aikin rediyo gabaɗaya.

 

#2 Tsarin Mitar Ginawa: Sami tsarin ma'aunin ma'auni ta atomatik wanda ya haɗa da impedance ta atomatik, ƙarfin lantarki, na yanzu, da fasahar wutar lantarki, da kuma ginanniyar hanyar haɗin kai don ma'aunin bakan - wanda aka ɗaga zuwa ainihin nauyin eriya don taimaka muku injiniyoyi su auna fitar da tashar kusa.

 

#3 Amintaccen Tsarin Zane na Wuta: Yin amfani da keɓaɓɓen da'ira don daidaita ƙarfin wutar lantarki, hana canje-canjen wutar lantarki na layin AC, dawo da yanayin aiki da ya gabata ta atomatik bayan gazawar wutar AC, overvoltage ko RF obalodi, da samun saurin mitar canjin mitoci ba tare da kayan aiki na musamman ko kayan gwaji na waje ba.

 

Ƙirar ƙaƙƙarfan ƙira da ƙirar ƙira tana ba da damar samun sauƙin shiga duk ɓangaren m-state-am-transmitter-rf-components-detail-fmuser-500px
 

An ƙera masu watsa FMUSER AM don yin amfani da iyakanceccen sararin wayoyi na ciki zuwa matsananci - wannan yana adana farashin samar da kayan aiki masu tsada. Tsarin gine-ginen da aka yi amfani da shi sosai, mai zafi yana haɗa abubuwa masu ƙarfi-jihar, wanda zai taimaka tashar AM ɗin ku ta isar da ingantaccen watsa shirye-shirye akai-akai da inganci kuma kai tsaye rage farashin ayyukan tashar ku.

 

Tsarin sanyaya iska duk-in-daya ba wai kawai yana ba da wannan silsilar cikakken ingancin fitarwa sama da 72% ba, har ma yana tabbatar da abokantakar muhallinsa, kai tsaye ko a kaikaice yana rage yawan iskar carbon, ba kwa buƙatar samun wuce gona da iri. damuwa ko kudin wutar lantarki na wata-wata yayi tsada sosai. 

 

Watsa shirye-shirye tare da Masu watsawa na Jiha Mai ƙarfi mai ƙarfi na AM!

  

Babban ikon FMUSER Solid State AM mai watsawa Iyali: sunayen Layin WIRED

 

FMUSER m jihar 1KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 3KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 5KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 10KW AM mai watsawa.jpg
1KW AM mai watsawa 3KW AM mai watsawa 5KW AM mai watsawa 10KW AM mai watsawa
FMUSER m jihar 25KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 50KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 100KW AM mai watsawa.jpg FMUSER m jihar 200KW AM mai watsawa.jpg
25KW AM mai watsawa 50KW AM mai watsawa 100KW AM mai watsawa 200KW AM mai watsawa

 

Sabbin fasalulluka na ƙira da cikakkun kewayon bincike suna taimakawa masu watsa shirye-shirye akai-akai don tabbatar da kyakkyawan aikin kan iska, kuma shine FMUSER's AM mai watsa watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye.

 

Abubuwan Gwajin AM & Auxiliaries

 

FMUSER, a matsayin ƙwararren mai ba da kayan watsa shirye-shiryen AM, tare da fice fa'idodin farashi da aikin samfur, Ya ba da mafita na watsa shirye-shiryen watsa labaran AM na masana'antu zuwa yawancin manyan tashoshin AM a duniya. 

 

Baya ga masu watsa wutar lantarki da yawa AM waɗanda za a iya isar da su a kowane lokaci, za ku kuma sami wasu mataimaka daban-daban don aiki tare da babban tsarin a lokaci guda, gami da gwajin lodi da iko har zuwa 100kW/200kW (1, 3, 10kW kuma akwai), mai inganci gwajin tsayawa, da eriya impedance matching tsarin

 

Zaɓi mafita na watsa shirye-shiryen AMUSER FM yana nufin cewa har yanzu za ku iya gina cikakken tsarin watsa shirye-shiryen AM mai inganci a kan iyakataccen farashi - wanda ke tabbatar da inganci, tsawon rai da amincin tashar ku mai faɗaɗawa.

 

KEY FEATURES

                  • Maɗaukakin Resistive
                  • RF Loads (duba Catalogue)
                  • CW yana ɗaukar nauyin iko har zuwa kewayon MW
                  • Pulse modulator lodi don matsananciyar iko mafi girma
                  • Matrix na RF (coaxial/symmetrical)
                  • Baluns da layukan ciyarwa
                  • High Voltage Cables
                  • Tsarin kulawa / kulawa na taimako
                  • Tsarukan aminci mai yawa
                  • Ƙarin zaɓuɓɓukan mu'amala akan buƙata
                  • Matsayin Gwajin Module
                  • Kayan aiki da Kayan aiki na Musamman

 

#1 Gwajin Gwajin Watsawa Mai ƙarfi-jihar AM

 

Yawancin amplifiers na FMUSER RF, masu watsawa, samar da wutar lantarki ko masu daidaitawa suna aiki a matsakaicin matsakaicin matsakaici. Wannan yana nufin cewa ba zai yiwu a gwada irin waɗannan tsarin tare da nauyin da aka nufa ba tare da haɗarin lalata nauyin ba. Bugu da ƙari, tare da irin wannan babban ƙarfin fitarwa, ana buƙatar masu watsawa na matsakaicin raƙuman ruwa don kiyayewa ko gwada su kowane lokaci, don haka nauyin gwaji na high qualit ya zama dole ga tashar watsa shirye-shirye. Nauyin gwajin da FMUSER ya ƙera sun haɗa duk abubuwan da ake buƙata a cikin majalisar-in-daya, wanda ke ba da damar sarrafawa ta atomatik da sauyawa ta atomatik - hakika, wannan na iya ma'ana da yawa ga kowane tsarin watsa shirye-shiryen AM.

 

 Gwajin FMUSER AM Yana Load da Iyali: har zuwa 200KW

 

1KW, 3KW, 10KW m jihar AM transmtter dummy load.jpg 100KW AM dummy kaya.jpg 200KW AM dummy kaya.jpg
1, 3, 10KW AM gwajin lodi 100KW AM gwajin gwajin watsawa 200KW AM gwajin gwajin watsawa

 

#2 FMUSER's AM Test Module Test

 

An tsara matattarar gwajin don tabbatar da ko masu watsa AM suna cikin kyakkyawan yanayin aiki bayan an gyara na'urar buffer da allon ƙarar wuta. Da zarar an wuce gwajin, ana iya sarrafa mai watsawa da kyau - wannan yana taimakawa wajen rage yawan gazawar da adadin dakatarwa.

 

AM transmitter benci na gwaji

 

#3 FMUSER's AM Eriya Tsarin Ma'auni na Impedance

 

Don eriya mai watsawa AM, yanayin da ake iya canzawa kamar tsawa, ruwan sama da zafi, da sauransu sune mahimman abubuwan da ke haifar da ɓacin rai (misali 50 Ω), wannan shine ainihin dalilin da ya sa ake buƙatar tsarin daidaitawa na impedance - don sake daidaitawa da impedance eriya. . Entenn watsa shirye-shiryen AM galibi suna da girma sosai kuma suna da sauƙin hana ƙetare, kuma an tsara tsarin impedance mara amfani da FMUSER don daidaitawa da daidaitawa na eriyar watsa shirye-shiryen AM. Da zarar impedance AM eriyar ta karkata da 50 Ω, za a daidaita tsarin daidaitawa don sake daidaita magudanar hanyar sadarwa zuwa 50 Ω, don tabbatar da ingancin watsawa na AM ɗin ku.

 

AM eriya impedance tsarin

AM eriya impedance unit

 

 

Ƙayyadaddun Ƙaƙƙarfan Ƙaƙwalwar Ƙaƙwalwa

1. Ƙarƙashin Ƙarfafawa - Tun da ikon amfani da ke cikin ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan, don haka ingantaccen tsarin AM yana da ƙasa.

 

2. Iyakance Tsawon Aiki - Kewayon aiki yana da ƙananan saboda ƙarancin inganci. Don haka, watsa sigina yana da wahala.

 

3. Hayaniya a Reception – Kamar yadda mai karɓar rediyo ke da wuya a bambance tsakanin bambance-bambancen girman da ke wakiltar hayaniya da waɗanda ke da sigina, hayaniya mai ƙarfi tana iya faruwa a liyafarsa.

 

4. Rashin ingancin Audio - Don samun babban liyafar aminci, duk mitar sauti har zuwa 15 KiloHertz dole ne a sake bugawa kuma wannan yana buƙatar bandwidth na 10 KiloHertz don rage tsangwama daga tashoshin watsa shirye-shiryen da ke kusa. Don haka a tashoshin watsa shirye-shiryen AM an san ingancin sauti mara kyau.

Aikace-aikace & Amfani da Amplitude Modulation

1. Watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo

2. Watsa shirye-shiryen TV

3. Ƙofar Garage tana buɗe wayoyi marasa maɓalli

4. Yana watsa siginar TV

5. Gajerun hanyoyin sadarwa na rediyo

6. Sadarwar rediyo ta hanyoyi biyu

Kwatanta Daban-daban AM

VSB-SC

1. definition - Layin gefe na vestigial (a cikin sadarwar rediyo) shi ne layin gefe wanda aka yanke shi kawai ko an danne shi.

2. Aikace-aikace - watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo

3. amfani - Yana watsa siginar TV

SSB-SC

1. definition - Single-sidebandmodulation (SSB) shine gyaran gyare-gyare na amplitude wanda ya fi dacewa da amfani da wutar lantarki da bandwidth.

2. Aikace-aikace - Watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen Rediyon Shortwave

3. amfani - Shortwave rediyo sadarwa

DSB-SC

1. definition - A cikin hanyoyin sadarwa na rediyo, banda band wani nau'in mitoci ne da ke hawanta fiye da ko ƙasa da mitar mai ɗaukar kaya, wanda ke ɗauke da ƙarfi a sakamakon tsarin daidaitawa.

2. Aikace-aikace - watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo

3. amfani - Hanyoyin sadarwa na rediyo guda biyu

 

SASHE

VSB-SC

SSB-SC

DSB-SC

definition

Layin gefe na vestigial (a cikin sadarwar rediyo) shi ne madaidaicin gefe wanda aka yanke shi kawai ko an danne shi.

Single-sidebandmodulation (SSB) shine gyaran gyare-gyare na amplitude wanda ya fi dacewa da amfani da wutar lantarki da bandwidth.

A cikin hanyoyin sadarwa na rediyo, banda band wani nau'in mitoci ne da ke hawanta fiye da ko ƙasa da mitar mai ɗaukar kaya, wanda ke ɗauke da ƙarfi a sakamakon tsarin daidaitawa.

 

 

Aikace-aikace

Watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen Rediyo

Watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen Rediyon Shortwave

Watsa shirye-shiryen TV & watsa shirye-shiryen Rediyo

amfani

Yana watsa siginar TV

Sadarwar gajeriyar igiyar rediyo

2-hanyar sadarwar rediyo

Cikakken Jagora don Sauƙaƙe Modulation (AM)

Menene Amplitude Modulation (AM)?

- "Modulation shine tsari na ɗaukaka ƙaramin sigina akan mitar mai girma siginar ɗauka."

 

- "Ana iya ayyana tsarin daidaitawa azaman bambance-bambancen igiyar jigilar RF daidai tare da hankali ko bayanai a cikin ƙaramin sigina."

 

- "Modulation an bayyana shi azaman riga-kafi wanda wasu halaye, yawanci girma, mita ko lokaci, na mai ɗaukar kaya yana bambanta daidai da ƙimar wasu ƙarfin lantarki nan take, wanda ake kira modulating voltage."

Me yasa ake buƙatar Modulation?

1. Idan aka kunna shirye-shiryen kiɗa guda biyu a lokaci guda a cikin nesa, zai yi wahala kowa ya saurari tushe ɗaya kuma bai ji tushe na biyu ba. Tunda duk sautin kiɗa yana da kusan kewayon mitar iri ɗaya, suna yin kusan 50 Hz zuwa 10KHz. Idan shirin da ake so ya canza zuwa band na mitoci tsakanin 100KHz zuwa 110KHz, kuma shirin na biyu ya koma band tsakanin 120KHz zuwa 130KHz, sannan duka shirye-shiryen sun ba da damar bandwidth 10KHz kuma mai sauraro zai iya (by band selection) ya dawo da shirin. nasa zabi. Mai karɓa zai sauke kawai zaɓaɓɓen rukunin mitoci zuwa kewayon da ya dace na 50Hz zuwa 10KHz.

 

2. Wani dalili na fasaha na biyu don matsawa siginar saƙo zuwa mitoci mafi girma yana da alaƙa da girman eriya. Ya kamata a lura cewa girman eriya ya yi daidai da mitar da za a haska. Wannan mita 75 ne a 1 MHz amma a 15KHz ya ƙaru zuwa mita 5000 (ko kuma sama da ƙafa 16,000) eriyar tsaye na wannan girman ba zai yiwu ba.

 

3. Dalili na uku na daidaita babban mai ɗauka shine cewa RF (mitar rediyo) makamashi zai yi tafiya mai nisa fiye da adadin kuzarin da ake watsawa da ƙarfin sauti.

Nau'in Yanayin Yanayi

Sigina mai ɗaukar hoto raƙuman ruwa ne a mitar mai ɗauka. Ƙarƙashin lissafin yana nuna cewa igiyar igiyar ruwa tana da halaye uku waɗanda za'a iya canzawa.

 

Instantaneous ƙarfin lantarki (E) = Ec (max) Sin (2πfct + θ)

 

Kalmomin da za a iya bambanta su ne wutar lantarki mai ɗaukar nauyi Ec, mitar fc mai ɗaukar kaya, da kusurwar ɗaukar kaya. θ. Don haka nau'ikan gyare-gyare guda uku suna yiwuwa.

1. Girman Modulation

Amplitude modulation shine karuwa ko raguwar ƙarfin lantarki mai ɗaukar nauyi (Ec), duk sauran abubuwan zasu kasance akai-akai.

2. Modulation Mitar

Motsawa juzu'i shine canji a cikin mitar mai ɗauka (fc) tare da duk sauran abubuwan da suka rage akai.

3. Modulation Phase

Canjin lokaci shine canji a kusurwar jigilar jigilar kaya (θ). Matsakaicin lokaci ba zai iya canzawa ba tare da ya shafi canjin mitar ba. Saboda haka, daidaitawar lokaci a haƙiƙance nau'i na biyu ne na daidaita mitar.

BAYANIN AM

Hanyar bambanta girman girman mitar mai ɗaukar nauyi daidai da bayanin da za'a watsa, kiyaye mita da lokaci na igiyoyin mai ɗauka ba su canzawa ana kiransa Amplitude Modulation. Ana ɗaukar bayanin azaman siginar daidaitawa kuma an ɗora shi akan igiyar jigilar kaya ta amfani da su duka biyun akan na'urar. An ba da cikakken zane mai nuna tsarin juzu'i mai girma a ƙasa.

 

 

Kamar yadda aka nuna a sama, kalaman mai ɗaukar hoto yana da raƙuman rabi masu kyau da mara kyau. Duk waɗannan zagayowar sun bambanta bisa ga bayanin da za a aika. Daga nan mai ɗaukar kaya ya ƙunshi igiyoyin sine waɗanda girmansu ya bi bambance-bambancen girma na igiyoyin motsi. Ana ajiye mai ɗaukar kaya a cikin ambulan da aka yi ta hanyar igiyar motsi. Daga cikin adadi, zaku iya ganin cewa girman girman girman mai ɗaukar hoto yana a mitar sigina kuma mitar kalaman mai ɗaukar nauyi daidai yake da mitar igiyoyin da ke fitowa.

Binciken Amplitude Modulation Carrier Wave

Bari vc = Vc Sin wct

vm = Vm Sin wmt

 

vc - ƙimar mai ɗauka nan take

Vc - Ƙimar ƙimar mai ɗauka

Wc - Gudun dako na kusurwa

vm – ƙimar siginar daidaitawa

Vm – Matsakaicin ƙimar siginar daidaitawa

wm – Gudun kusurwar siginar daidaitawa

fm – Modulating mitar sigina

 

Dole ne a lura cewa kusurwar lokaci ya kasance mai tsayi a cikin wannan tsari. Don haka ana iya yin watsi da shi.

 

Dole ne a lura cewa kusurwar lokaci ya kasance mai tsayi a cikin wannan tsari. Don haka ana iya yin watsi da shi.

 

Girman kalaman mai ɗaukar nauyi ya bambanta a fm. Ana ba da ma'aunin amplitude mai daidaitawa ta lissafin A = Vc + vm = Vc + Vm Sin wmt

= Vc [1+ (Vm/Vc Sin wmt)]

 

= Vc (1 + mSin wmt)

 

m - Fihirisar Modulation. Matsakaicin Vm/Vc.

 

Ana ba da ƙimar ƙimar girman girman maɗaukakin igiyar ruwa ta ma'auni v = A Sin wct = Vc (1 + m Sin wmt) Sin wct

 

= Vc Sin wct + mVc (Sin wmt Sin wct)

 

v = Vc Sin wct + [mVc/2 Cos (wc-wm)t - mVc/2 Cos (wc + wm) t]

 

Ma'aunin da ke sama yana wakiltar jimlar raƙuman ruwa uku. Daya tare da amplitude na Vc da mitar wc/2, na biyu mai girma na mVc/2 da mitar (wc – wm)/2 da na uku tare da amplitude na mVc/2 da mitar (wc) + wm)/2 .

 

A aikace an san saurin angular na mai ɗaukar hoto ya fi ƙarfin kusurwar siginar daidaitawa (wc >> wm). Don haka, ma'auni na cosine na biyu da na uku sun fi kusanci da mitar mai ɗauka. Ana wakilta ma'aunin ta hoto kamar yadda aka nuna a ƙasa.

Yawan Mitar AM Wave

Ƙananan mitar gefen - (wc - wm)/2

Mitar gefen sama - (wc + wm)/2

 

Abubuwan mitar da ke cikin igiyar AM ana wakilta su ta layukan tsaye kusan waɗanda ke tare da axis. Ana zana tsayin kowane layi na tsaye daidai da girmansa. Tunda saurin angular na mai ɗaukar hoto ya fi ƙarfin kusurwar siginar daidaitawa, girman mitoci na gefe ba zai taɓa wuce rabin girman mai ɗaukar hoto ba.

 

Don haka ba za a sami wani canji a cikin mitar asali ba, amma za a canza mitoci na gefen (wc – wm)/2 da (wc +wm)/2. Na farko ana kiransa mitar gefen gefen sama (USB) kuma daga baya kuma ana kiranta da mitar ƙananan gefe (LSB).

 

Tunda mitar siginar wm/2 tana cikin ƙungiyoyin gefe, a bayyane yake cewa ɓangaren ƙarfin lantarki mai ɗaukar hoto baya watsa kowane bayani.

 

Za a samar da mitoci masu haɗaɗɗiyar gefe biyu lokacin da aka daidaita girman mai ɗaukar kaya da mitoci ɗaya. Wato AM wave yana da nisa daga (wc – wm)/2 zuwa (wc +wm)/2, wato 2wm/2 ko sau biyu ana samar da mitar siginar. Lokacin da siginar daidaitawa yana da mitoci fiye da ɗaya, ana samar da mitoci na gefe guda biyu ta kowace mitar. Hakazalika don mitoci biyu na siginar daidaitawa 2 LSB's da 2 na USB za a samar.

 

Ƙungiyoyin gefen mitoci waɗanda ke sama da mitar mai ɗauka zasu kasance iri ɗaya da waɗanda ke ƙasa. Mitar band ɗin gefen da ke sama da mitar mai ɗauka an san shi shine rukunin gefe na sama kuma duk waɗanda ke ƙasa da mitar mai ɗauka suna cikin rukunin ƙananan gefen. Mitocin USB suna wakiltar wasu mitoci masu daidaitawa guda ɗaya kuma mitocin LSB suna wakiltar bambanci tsakanin mitar daidaitawa da mitar mai ɗauka. Jimlar bandwidth ana wakilta bisa ga mafi girman mitar daidaitawa kuma yana daidai da sau biyu wannan mitar.

Fihirisar Modulation (m)

Matsakaicin girman girman canjin mai ɗaukar igiyoyin ruwa zuwa girman madaidaicin igiyoyin jigilar kaya ana kiransa fihirisar daidaitawa. An wakilta shi da harafin "m'.

 

Hakanan za'a iya bayyana shi azaman kewayon da girman igiyoyin mai ɗaukar hoto ya bambanta ta siginar daidaitawa. m = Vm/Vc.

 

Ƙimar kashi, %m = m*100 = Vm/Vc * 100

Matsakaicin kashi yana tsakanin 0 zuwa 80%.

 

Wata hanyar bayyana fihirisar daidaitawa ita ce dangane da matsakaicin matsakaici da mafi ƙarancin ƙima na girman girman igiyoyin jigilar kaya. Ana nuna wannan a cikin hoton da ke ƙasa.

 

 

2 Vin = Vmax - Vmin

 

Vin = (Vmax-Vmin)/2

 

Vc = Vmax - Vin

 

= Vmax - (Vmax-Vmin)/2 = (Vmax + Vmin)/2

Sauya ƙimar Vm da Vc a cikin ma'auni m = Vm/Vc, muna samun

 

M = Vmax - Vmin/Vmax + Vmin

 

Kamar yadda aka fada a baya, ƙimar "m" tana tsakanin 0 da 0.8. Darajar m yana ƙayyade ƙarfi da ingancin siginar da aka watsa. A cikin igiyar AM, siginar tana ƙunshe a cikin bambance-bambancen girman mai ɗauka. Siginar mai jiwuwa da ake watsawa zai yi rauni idan an daidaita igiyoyin mai ɗaukar hoto zuwa ƙaramin digiri. Amma idan darajar m ta wuce haɗin kai, fitarwar watsawa yana haifar da kuskuren kuskure.

Alamar Wuta a cikin kalaman AM

Moduated taguwar ruwa yana da ƙarfi fiye da yadda ake samu ta kalaman mai ɗauka kafin daidaitawa. Ana iya rubuta jimlar abubuwan haɗin wutar lantarki a cikin amplitude modulation kamar:

 

Ptotal = Pcarrier + PLSB + PUSB

 

Yin la'akari da ƙarin juriya kamar juriyar eriya R.

 

Pcarrier = [(Vc/2)/R] 2 = V2C/2R

 

Kowane rukunin gefe yana da ƙimar m/2 Vc da ƙimar rms na mVc/22. Saboda haka ikon a LSB da USB za a iya rubuta kamar yadda

 

PLSB = PUSB = (mVc/22) 2 / R = m2 / 4 * V2C / 2R = m2 / 4 Pcarrier

 

 

Ptotal = V2C/2R + [m2/4*V2C/2R] + [m2/4*V2C/2R] = V2C/2R (1 + m2/2) = Mai ɗaukar kaya (1 + m2/2)

 

A wasu aikace-aikace, mai ɗaukar kaya yana canzawa lokaci guda ta siginonin daidaitawa na sinusoidal da yawa. A irin wannan yanayin, ana ba da jimillar ma'aunin daidaitawa azaman

Mt = (m12+m22+m32+m42+......

 

Idan Ic da It sune dabi'un rms na halin yanzu da ba a daidaita su ba da kuma jimlar halin yanzu da R shine juriya ta hanyar da waɗannan na yanzu ke gudana, to.

 

Ptotal/Pcarrier = (It.R/Ic.R)2 = (It/Ic)2

 

Ptotal/Pcarrier = (1 + m2/2)

 

It/Ic = 1 + m2/2

 

Amplitude Modulation (AM) FAQ

1. Ma'anar daidaitawa?

Modulation wani tsari ne wanda wasu halaye na siginar mai ɗaukar nauyi ya bambanta daidai da ƙimar siginar daidaitawa nan take.

2. Wadanne nau'ikan na'urorin analog ne?

Girman daidaitawa.

Tsarin Angle

Matsakaici mai daidaituwa

Tsarin tsari.

3. Ƙayyade zurfin daidaitawa.

An bayyana shi azaman rabo tsakanin girman saƙo zuwa na girman mai ɗauka. m=Em/Ec

4. Menene matakan daidaitawa?

Ƙarƙashin daidaitawa. m <1

Matsala mai mahimmanci m=1

Sama da daidaitawa m>1

5. Menene buƙatar daidaitawa?

Bukatu don daidaitawa:

Sauƙin watsawa

Maimaitawa

Rage surutu

Ƙunƙarar bandwidth

Yawan aiki

Rage iyakokin kayan aiki

6. Wadanne nau'ikan AM modulators ne?

Akwai nau'ikan AM modulators iri biyu. Su ne

- Modulators na layi

- Modulators marasa layi

 

An rarraba masu daidaitawa na layi kamar haka

transistor modulator

 

Akwai nau'ikan transistor modulator iri uku.

Mai tarawa mai daidaitawa

Emitter modulator

Tushen modulator

Modulators masu sauyawa

 

Modulators marasa layi suna rarraba kamar haka

Yankin gyaran kafa na doka

Modulator na samfur

Daidaita modulator

7. Menene bambanci tsakanin babban matakin da ƙananan matakan daidaitawa?

A cikin babban matakin daidaitawa, amplifier na modulator yana aiki a manyan matakan wuta kuma yana ba da wuta kai tsaye zuwa eriya. A cikin ƙananan matakan daidaitawa, amplifier na modulator yana yin juzu'i a ƙananan matakan wuta. Sa'an nan kuma ana ƙara siginar da aka daidaita zuwa babban matakin wuta ta hanyar ƙara ƙarfin aji B. Amplifier yana ciyar da wuta zuwa eriya.

8. Ƙayyade Ganewa (ko) Rushewa.

Ganewa shine tsarin cire siginar daidaitawa daga mai ɗaukar hoto. Ana amfani da nau'ikan ganowa daban-daban don nau'ikan gyare-gyare daban-daban.

9. Ƙayyade Ƙwararren Ƙarfafawa.

A cikin juzu'i mai girma, girman siginar mai ɗauka yana bambanta bisa ga bambancin girman siginar daidaitawa.

 

Ana iya wakilta siginar AM ta hanyar lissafi azaman, eAM = (Ec + Em sinωmt) sinωct kuma ana ba da ma'anar daidaitawa azaman, m = Em / EC (ko) Vm/Vc

10. Menene Mai karɓar Super Heterodyne?

Mai karɓar super heterodyne yana jujjuya duk mitocin RF masu shigowa zuwa ƙayyadaddun mitar ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun mitar, wanda ake kira matsakaicin mitar (IF). Wannan IDAN yana da girma kuma an gano shi don samun siginar asali.

11. Menene sautin guda ɗaya da daidaita sautin multitone?

- Idan ana yin na'ura don siginar saƙo tare da abubuwan mitar fiye da ɗaya to ana kiran na'urar ta multi tone modulation.

- Idan an yi na'urar daidaitawa don siginar saƙo tare da bangaren mitar guda ɗaya to ana kiran na'urar daidaita sautin guda ɗaya.

12. Kwatanta AM da DSB-SC da SSB-SC.

S.No

siginar AM

DSB-SC

SSB-SC

1

Bandwidth 2fm

Bandwidth 2fm

Bandwidth fm

2

Ya ƙunshi USB, LSB, Mai ɗauka

Ya ƙunshi USB.LSB

USB.LSB

3

Ana buƙatar ƙarin ƙarfi don watsawa

Wutar da ake buƙata bai kai na AM ba

Wutar da ake buƙata bai kai AM & DSB-SC ba

13. Menene fa'idodin VSB-AM?

- Yana da bandwidth mafi girma fiye da SSB amma ƙasa da tsarin DSB.

- watsa wutar lantarki ya fi DSB amma kasa da tsarin SSB.

- Babu ƙananan mitar abin da ya ɓace. Don haka yana guje wa gurɓacewar lokaci.

14. Ta yaya za ku samar da DSBSC-AM?

Akwai hanyoyi guda biyu na samar da DSBSC-AM kamar

- Madaidaicin modulator

- Masu gyara zobe.

15. Menene fa'idodin zobe modulator?

- Fitowar sa ya tabbata.

- Ba ya buƙatar tushen wutar lantarki na waje don kunna diodes. c) . Kusan babu kulawa.

- Dogon rai.

16. Ƙayyade Demodulation.

Demodulation ko ganowa shine tsarin da ake samun modulating ƙarfin lantarki daga siginar da aka daidaita. Yana da tsarin juyawa na daidaitawa. Na'urorin da ake amfani da su don lalatawa ko ganowa ana kiran su masu lalata ko ganowa. Domin amplitude modulation, ganowa ko demodulators an kasasu kamar: 

 

- Masu gano dokoki na square

Masu gano ambulaf

17. Ma'anar Multiplexing.

Multiplexing an ayyana shi azaman tsarin watsa siginar saƙo da yawa lokaci guda akan tashoshi ɗaya.

18. Ƙayyadaddun Ƙwararren Ƙwararren Ƙwararren Ƙwararru.

An ayyana rarrabuwar kawuna da yawa kamar yadda ake watsa sigina da yawa a lokaci guda tare da kowace sigina mai ɗaukar ramin mitar mita daban-daban tsakanin bandwidth gama gari.

19. Ƙayyadaddun Ƙwararren Ƙwararru.

An gabatar da Ƙungiyoyin Guard a cikin bakan FDM don guje wa kowane tsangwama tsakanin tashoshi masu kusa. Faɗin makada masu gadi, Karamin tsangwama.

20. Ƙayyade SSB-SC.

- SSB-SC na nufin Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier

Lokacin da igiyar gefe guda ɗaya kawai aka watsa, ana kiran tsarin daidaitawa azaman maɓalli na gefe guda ɗaya. Ana kuma kiranta da SSB ko SSB-SC.

21. Ƙayyadaddun DSB-SC.

Bayan daidaitawa, tsarin watsa layin gefe (USB, LSB) kadai da kuma danne mai ɗaukar kaya ana kiransa da Mai ɗaukar Side Band-Suppressed Double Side.

22. Menene rashin amfanin DSB-FC?

- Wutar lantarki yana faruwa a DSB-FC

DSB-FC tsarin bandwidth mara inganci ne.

23. Ƙayyade Gano Haɗe-haɗe.

Yayin da mai ɗaukar kaya yana daidaita daidai ko yana aiki tare a duka mitoci da lokaci, tare da ainihin igiyoyin jigilar kaya da aka yi amfani da su don samar da igiyar DSB-SC.

 

Ana kiran wannan hanyar ganowa azaman gano madaidaici ko ganowa tare.

24. Menene Modulation Side Band Modulation?

Vestigial Sideband Modulation an ayyana shi azaman abin daidaitawa wanda ɗayan ɗayan keɓaɓɓen keɓaɓɓen ke danne kuma ana watsa sawun ɗayan gefen don rama wannan danniya.

25. Menene fa'idodin watsa siginar sideband?

- Amfani da wutar lantarki

Kiyaye bandwidth

- Rage surutu

26. Menene rashin lahani na watsa bandeji guda ɗaya?

Complex masu karɓaTsarin bandeji guda ɗaya yana buƙatar ƙarin hadaddun masu karɓa da tsada fiye da watsawar yau da kullun na AM.

Matsalolin daidaitawa: Masu karɓar band ɗin gefe guda ɗaya suna buƙatar ƙarin hadaddun kuma madaidaicin tunig fiye da masu karɓar AM na al'ada.

27. Kwatanta na'urori masu daidaita layi da marasa layi?

Modulators na layi

- Ba a buƙatar tacewa mai nauyi.

- Ana amfani da waɗannan modulators a cikin babban matakin daidaitawa.

- Wutar lantarki mai ɗaukar nauyi ya fi girma sosai fiye da daidaita ƙarfin sigina.

Masu Modula Masu Motsa Jiki

- Ana buƙatar tace mai yawa.

- Ana amfani da waɗannan modulators a cikin ƙananan matakan daidaitawa.

- Ƙarfin sigina mai daidaitawa ya fi ƙarfin siginar mai ɗauka da yawa.

28. Menene fassarar mitar?

A ɗauka cewa sigina yana iyakance ga kewayon mitar da ke tashi daga mitar f1 zuwa mitar f2. Tsarin fassarar mitar shine wanda aka maye gurbin siginar asali da sabon sigina wanda kewayon sigina ya tashi daga f1' da f2' kuma wanda sabon sigina ke ɗauka, cikin sigar da za a iya dawo da ita daidai da bayanin da siginar asali ke ɗauka.

29. Wadanne yanayi ne aka gano a cikin mitar fassarar?

Juyawa Sama: A wannan yanayin mitar mai da aka fassara ya fi mai shigowa

Canjin Kasa: A wannan yanayin mitar mai ɗaukar hoto da aka fassara ya yi ƙanƙanta fiye da karuwar mitar mai ɗauka.

 

Don haka, siginar kunkuntar FM tana buƙatar ainihin bandwidth iri ɗaya kamar siginar AM.

30. Menene BW don AM igiyar ruwa?

 Bambanci tsakanin waɗannan matsananciyar mitoci guda biyu daidai yake da bandwidth na igiyoyin AM.

 Saboda haka, Bandwidth, B = (fc + fm) - (fc - fm) B = 2fm

31. Menene BW na siginar DSB-SC?

Bandwidth, B = (fc + fm) - (fc - fm) B = 2f

A bayyane yake cewa bandwidth na tsarin DSB-SC daidai yake da na raƙuman ruwa na AM.

32. Wadanne hanyoyin tarwatsawa na siginar DSB-SC?

Ana iya lalata siginar DSB-SC ta hanyoyi biyu:

- Hanyar gano aiki tare.

- Yin amfani da mai gano ambulaf bayan sake shigar da mai ɗauka.

33. Rubuta aikace-aikacen Hilbert canza?

- Domin tsara siginar SSB,

- Don ƙirƙira mafi ƙarancin nau'in tacewa,

- Don wakilcin siginar wucewa na band.

34. Menene hanyoyin samar da siginar SSB-SC?

Ana iya samar da siginar SSB-SC ta hanyoyi biyu kamar ƙarƙashin:

- Hanyar nuna wariya akai-akai ko hanyar tacewa.

- Hanyar nuna wariya ko tsarin canja lokaci.

 

SHARUDAN KALMOMI

1. Girman daidaitawa: Canjin igiyar ruwa ta hanyar canza girmansa, ana amfani da ita musamman a matsayin hanyar watsa siginar sauti ta hanyar haɗa shi da igiyoyin ɗaukar hoto.

 

2. Ma'anar daidaitawa: (zurfin gyare-gyare) na tsarin daidaitawa yana bayyana ta yadda yawan canjin canjin siginar mai ɗauka ya bambanta a kusa da matakin da ba a daidaita shi ba.

 

3. Narrowband FM: Idan ma'aunin daidaitawa na FM yana ƙarƙashin 1, to FM ɗin da aka samar ana ɗaukarsa azaman kunkuntar band FM.

 

4. Motsa jiki (FM): shigar da bayanai a cikin kalaman mai ɗaukar hoto ta hanyar bambanta mitar kalaman nan take.

 

5. Amsa: An zaɓi matakin a hankali don kada ya yi lodin mahaɗa lokacin da sigina masu ƙarfi ke nan, amma yana ba da damar haɓaka sigina yadda ya kamata don tabbatar da ingantaccen sigina zuwa rabon amo.

 

6. Modulation: Tsarin da wasu halaye na igiyar jigilar kaya suka bambanta daidai da siginar saƙo.

Menene bambanci tsakanin SW, MW da FM rediyo?

Shortwave (SW)

Rediyon Shortwave yana da babban kewayo - ana iya karɓar shi dubban mil daga mai watsawa, kuma watsawa na iya ratsa tekuna da jeri na tsaunuka. Wannan ya sa ya zama manufa don isa ga ƙasashe ba tare da hanyar sadarwar rediyo ba ko kuma inda aka hana watsa shirye-shiryen Kirista. A taƙaice, gajeriyar igiyar rediyo ta shawo kan iyakoki, na yanki ko na siyasa. SW yana da sauƙin karɓa, kuma: ko da arha, radiyo masu sauƙi suna iya ɗaukar sigina.

 

 makada mitar rediyo infographic

 

Ƙarfin rediyon gajeriyar igiyar igiyar ruwa ya sa ya dace sosai don maɓalli na musamman na Feba Cocin da aka tsananta. Misali, a yankunan Arewa maso Gabashin Afirka inda aka dakatar da watsa shirye-shiryen addini a cikin kasar, abokan huldarmu na gida za su iya ƙirƙirar abun ciki mai jiwuwa, aika shi daga ƙasar kuma a mayar da shi ta hanyar watsa SW ba tare da haɗarin tuhuma ba.  

 

A halin yanzu Yemen na fama da mummunan rikici da tashin hankali tare da rikicin da ya haifar da gagarumin agajin jin kai. Kazalika ba da ƙarfafawar ruhaniya, abokan hulɗarmu suna watsa abubuwan da ke magance al'amuran zamantakewa, lafiya da walwala ta fuskar Kirista.  

 

A kasar da kiristoci ke da kashi 0.08 bisa dari na al’ummar kasar kuma suna fuskantar tsanantawa saboda imaninsu. Gaskiya Church fasalin gajeriyar radiyo ne na mintuna 30 na mako-mako wanda ke goyan bayan masu bi na Yaman a yare na gida. Masu sauraro za su iya samun damar watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo masu tallafi a cikin sirri da kuma ba tare da suna ba.  

 

Hanya mai ƙarfi don isa ga al'ummomin da aka ware a kan iyakoki, gajeriyar igiyar ruwa tana da tasiri sosai wajen isa ga masu sauraro masu nisa da Bishara kuma, a wuraren da ake tsananta wa Kiristoci, suna barin masu sauraro da masu watsa shirye-shirye ba tare da tsoron ramuwar gayya ba. 

Matsakaici-kalaman (MW)

Ana amfani da rediyo mai matsakaicin raƙuman ruwa gabaɗaya don watsa shirye-shiryen gida kuma cikakke ne ga al'ummomin karkara. Tare da kewayon watsawa na matsakaici, zai iya isa wuraren keɓe tare da sigina mai ƙarfi, abin dogaro. Ana iya watsa watsawa ta matsakaicin raƙuman ruwa ta kafafan cibiyoyin sadarwar rediyo - inda waɗannan cibiyoyin sadarwa suke.  

 

Mace a Indiya tana sauraron rediyo

 

In arewacin Indiya, imani na al'adun gida yana barin mata a ware kuma yawancin suna tsare a gidajensu. Ga matan da ke cikin wannan matsayi, watsawa daga Feba Arewacin Indiya (ta amfani da kafaffen hanyar sadarwar rediyo) babbar hanyar haɗi ce tare da duniyar waje. Shirye-shiryen da suka dogara da shi yana ba da ilimi, jagorar kiwon lafiya da kuma shigar da yancin mata, yana haifar da tattaunawa game da ruhaniya tare da matan da ke tuntuɓar tashar. A cikin wannan mahallin, rediyo yana kawo saƙon bege da ƙarfafawa ga mata masu sauraro a gida.   

Matsakaicin Matsakaici (FM)

Ga gidan rediyon al'umma, FM sarki! 

 

Injiniya up mast - Umoja FM

 

Radio Umoja FM a DRC da aka kaddamar kwanan nan, da nufin baiwa al'umma murya. FM yana ba da siginar gajeriyar hanya - gabaɗaya zuwa ko'ina cikin ganin mai watsawa, tare da ingantaccen sauti. Yana iya yawanci rufe yankin ƙaramin birni ko babban gari - yana mai da shi cikakke ga gidan rediyo mai mai da hankali kan ƙayyadaddun yanki yana magana cikin lamuran gida. Yayin da gajeriyar igiyar igiyar igiyar ruwa da matsakaitan igiyar igiyar ruwa na iya yin tsada don aiki, lasisin tashar FM na al'umma yana da rahusa. 

 

Aafno FM suna watsa shirye-shirye daga ɗakin su na akwati

 

Afno FM, Abokin tarayya na Feba a Nepal, yana ba da shawarwarin kiwon lafiya masu mahimmanci ga al'ummomin yankunan Okhaldhunga da Dadeldhura. Amfani da FM yana ba su damar haɗa mahimman bayanai, a sarari, zuwa wuraren da aka yi niyya. A cikin karkarar Nepal, ana zargin asibitoci da yawa kuma ana ganin wasu yanayin kiwon lafiya na yau da kullun. Akwai matukar buqatar ingantacciyar masaniya, shawarwarin kiwon lafiya da ba na shari'a ba Afno FM yana taimakawa wajen biyan wannan bukata. Ƙungiyar tana aiki tare da haɗin gwiwar asibitocin gida don hanawa da magance matsalolin kiwon lafiya na yau da kullum (musamman waɗanda ke da rashin kunya) da kuma magance tsoron mutanen gida na ƙwararrun kiwon lafiya, suna ƙarfafa masu sauraro su nemi magani a asibiti lokacin da suke bukata. FM kuma ana amfani dashi a rediyo don amsar gaggawa - tare da na'urar watsa FM mai nauyin kilogiram 20 yana da sauƙi don ɗauka zuwa al'ummomin da bala'i ya shafa a matsayin wani ɓangare na sauƙin jigilar kaya. 

Intanit na Intanit

Saurin haɓaka fasahar tushen yanar gizon yana ba da dama mai yawa don watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo. Tashoshi na Intanet suna da sauri da sauƙi don saitawa (wani lokaci suna ɗaukar ɗan sati ɗaya don tashi da aiki! Yana iya kashe kuɗi da yawa fiye da na yau da kullun.

 

Wani mutum yana sauraron Muryar Rediyo ta Intanet a Masar 

Kuma saboda intanet ba shi da iyaka, masu sauraron rediyo na yanar gizo na iya samun isa ga duniya. Wani koma-baya shi ne radiyon Intanet ya dogara ne kan abin da ya shafi Intanet da kuma yadda mai sauraro ke samun damar yin amfani da kwamfuta ko wayar salula.  

 

A cikin al'ummar duniya biliyan 7.2, kashi uku cikin biyar, ko kuma mutane biliyan 4.2, har yanzu ba sa samun damar shiga Intanet akai-akai. Don haka ayyukan rediyo na al'umma da ke tushen Intanet ba su dace a halin yanzu ba ga wasu yankuna mafi talauci da mafi ƙarancin isa ga duniya.

Menene SW da MW?
Sunan “gajeren zango” ya samo asali ne a farkon rediyo a farkon karni na 20, lokacin da aka raba bakan rediyo zuwa dogon igiyar ruwa (LW), matsakaicin kalaman (MW), da gajerun igiyoyin igiyar ruwa (SW) dangane da tsawon igiyar igiyar ruwa. .
AM da MW iri daya ne?
AM, wanda ke nufin Amplitude Modulation (AM) shine tsarin watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo mafi dadewa a Burtaniya. Ana amfani da kalmar AM da yawa don rufe duka Medium Wave (MW) da Long Wave (LW).
Menene bambanci tsakanin gajeriyar igiyar ruwa da matsakaici?
Ta hanyar tunani ɗaya ko fiye tsakanin ƙasa da ionosphere, ana iya karɓar siginar rediyo mai ɗan gajeren lokaci a nesa mai nisa daga mai watsawa. Kuma matsakaicin igiyar ruwa ko matsakaiciyar igiyar ruwa (MW) wani bangare ne na rukunin rediyon Matsakaici (MF) da ake amfani da shi don watsa shirye-shiryen AM.
Shin gajartar rediyon AM?
Ana kiranta gajeriyar igiyar ruwa saboda, a zahiri, raƙuman ruwa da ake fitarwa gajeru ne sabanin doguwar igiyar ruwa da matsakaita, wanda AM rediyo ke amfani da shi, da VHF mai faɗi (mai girma sosai) da rediyon FM ke amfani da shi. Waɗannan gajerun raƙuman ruwa na iya tafiya dubban mil a fadin duniya, don haka gajeriyar igiyoyin rediyo, bisa ga dabi'a, na duniya ne.
Shin rediyon AM iri ɗaya ce da matsakaicin igiyar ruwa?
Ana watsa sigina na matsakaici (MW) ta amfani da amplitude modulation (AM) kuma ana amfani da sharuddan musaya. Ana watsa siginar FM galibi a cikin manyan mitoci (VHF) ko ultra high mita (UHF) kuma ana amfani da su don watsa murya (rediyo) da kuma watsa bidiyo (TV).
Menene kewayon mitar AM?
Ƙungiyar AM a Amurka tana ɗaukar mitoci daga 540 kHz har zuwa 1700 kHz, a cikin matakan 10 kHz (540, 550, 560 ... 1680, 1690, 1700). 530 kHz a cikin Amurka ba a samuwa don amfani da watsa shirye-shirye, amma an tanada shi don amfani da Tashoshin Bayanin Matafiya masu ƙarancin ƙarfi.

Me yasa har yanzu ana amfani da rediyon AM?

Amplitude modulation (AM) shine mafi dadewa nau'in daidaitawa da aka sani. Tashoshin watsa shirye-shirye na farko sun kasance AM, amma ko da a baya, CW ko ci gaba da sigina tare da lambar Morse wani nau'i ne na AM. Su ne abin da muke kira on-off keying (OOK) ko maɓalli mai girma-shift (TAMBAYA) a yau.

 

Kodayake AM shine farkon kuma mafi tsufa, har yanzu yana nan a cikin ƙarin nau'ikan fiye da yadda kuke tunani. AM mai sauƙi ne, ƙarancin farashi, kuma yana da tasiri mai ban mamaki. Duk da cewa buƙatun bayanai masu saurin gaske ya kai mu zuwa ga rarrabuwar mitar mitar mitoci (OFDM) a matsayin mafi kyawun tsarin daidaitawa, AM har yanzu yana cikin hanyar quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).

 

Me ya sanya ni tunanin AM? A lokacin babban guguwar hunturu na watanni biyu ko makamancin haka, na sami yawancin yanayi na da bayanan gaggawa daga tashoshin AM na gida. Musamman daga WOAI, tashar mai karfin 50-kW wacce ta kasance tsawon shekaru. Ina shakka har yanzu suna ci gaba da fitar da 50 kW yayin da wutar lantarki ta ƙare, amma sun kasance a cikin iska yayin duk yanayin yanayi. Da yawa idan ba yawancin tashoshin AM sun tashi kuma suna aiki akan wutar lantarki. Dogara da ta'aziyya.

 

Akwai tashoshi sama da 6,000 na AM a cikin Amurka a yau. Kuma har yanzu suna da ɗimbin masu sauraro, galibi mazauna gida waɗanda ke neman sabbin yanayi, zirga-zirga, da bayanan labarai. Yawancin har yanzu suna sauraron motoci ko manyan motoci. Akwai shirye-shiryen rediyo da yawa na magana kuma har yanzu kuna iya jin wasan ƙwallon baseball ko ƙwallon ƙafa akan AM. Zaɓuɓɓukan kiɗa sun ragu, saboda galibi sun ƙaura zuwa FM. Duk da haka, akwai wasu ƙasashe da tashoshin kiɗa na Tejano akan AM. Duk ya dogara da masu sauraron gida, wanda ya bambanta sosai.

 

AM rediyo yana watsawa a cikin tashoshi masu faɗin 10-kHz tsakanin 530 zuwa 1710 kHz. Duk tashoshi suna amfani da hasumiya, don haka polarization yana tsaye. A lokacin rana, yaɗuwar galibi shine igiyar ƙasa tare da kewayon mil 100. Ga mafi yawancin, ya dogara da matakin wutar lantarki, yawanci 5 kW ko 1 kW. Babu tashoshi 50-kW da yawa sun wanzu, amma kewayon su a fili yana da nisa.

 

Da daddare, ba shakka, yaduwar yaduwa yana canzawa yayin da ionized ya canza kuma yana sa sigina suyi tafiya mai nisa godiya ga ikon da suke da shi ta hanyar daɗaɗɗen ion na sama don samar da sigina masu yawa a nesa zuwa mil dubu ko fiye. Idan kuna da rediyon AM mai kyau da eriya mai tsayi za ku iya sauraron tashoshi a duk faɗin ƙasar da dare.

 

AM kuma shine babban tsarin tsarin rediyo mai gajeren zango, wanda zaku iya ji a duk duniya daga 5 zuwa 30 MHz. Har yanzu yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin samun bayanai ga yawancin ƙasashen duniya na uku. Sauraron gajere kuma ya kasance sanannen sha'awa.

 

Bayan watsa shirye-shirye, ina ake amfani da AM har yanzu? Ham radio har yanzu yana amfani da AM; ba a ainihin sigar babban matakin ba, amma azaman sideband guda ɗaya (SSB). SSB AM ne tare da dillali da aka danne kuma an tace gefen gefe ɗaya, yana barin ƙunƙuntaccen tashar murya 2,800-Hz. An yi amfani da shi sosai kuma yana da tasiri sosai, musamman a cikin makada na naman alade daga 3 zuwa 30 MHz. Sojoji da wasu gidajen rediyon ruwa na ci gaba da amfani da wani nau'i na SSB, ma.

 

Amma jira, ba wannan ke nan ba. Har yanzu ana iya samun AM a cikin radiyon Ƙungiyar Jama'a. Tsohuwar AM ta kasance a cikin mahaɗin, kamar yadda SSB yake. Haka kuma, AM shine babban tsarin rediyon jirgin da ake amfani da shi tsakanin jirage da hasumiya. Waɗannan gidajen rediyon suna aiki a rukunin 118- zuwa 135-MHz. Me yasa AM? Ban taba gano hakan ba, amma yana aiki lafiya.

 

A ƙarshe, AM har yanzu yana tare da mu a cikin nau'in QAM, haɗe-haɗe na lokaci da haɓaka haɓaka. Yawancin tashoshi OFDM suna amfani da nau'i ɗaya na QAM don samun mafi girman ƙimar bayanan da za su iya bayarwa.

 

Duk da haka dai, AM bai mutu ba tukuna, kuma a zahiri da alama ya tsufa.

Menene AM Transmitter kuma yaya yake aiki?

Menene AM watsawa?

Masu watsa siginar AM ana kiransu da AM transmitters, kuma ana kiranta da watsa rediyon AM ko watsa watsa shirye-shiryen AM, saboda ana amfani da su don isar da siginar rediyo daga wannan gefe zuwa wancan.

 

FMUSER m-jihar 1000 watt AM mai watsawa-blue bango-pixels 700.png

 

Ana amfani da waɗannan masu watsawa a cikin matsakaicin raƙuman ruwa (MW) da gajeriyar igiyoyi (SW) don watsa shirye-shiryen AM.

 

Ƙungiyar MW tana da mitoci tsakanin 550 KHz da 1650 KHz, kuma ƙungiyar SW tana da mitoci daga 3 MHz zuwa 30 MHz. Nau'o'i biyu na masu watsa AM da ake amfani da su dangane da ikon watsa su sune:

 

  • Matsayi mai girma
  • Ƙananan Mataki

 

Manyan masu watsa shirye-shiryen suna amfani da babban matakin daidaitawa, kuma ƙananan masu watsawa suna amfani da ƙarancin daidaitawa. Zaɓin tsakanin tsare-tsaren daidaitawa guda biyu ya dogara da ikon watsawa na AM.

 

A cikin masu watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye, inda ikon watsawa zai iya zama na tsari na kilowatts, ana amfani da babban matakin daidaitawa. A cikin ƙananan masu watsa wutar lantarki, inda kawai ake buƙatar watts kaɗan na ikon watsawa, ana amfani da ƙaramin matakin daidaitawa..

Masu Watsawa Mai Girma Da Ƙarancin Matsayi

Hoton da ke ƙasa yana nuna zanen toshe na masu watsa manyan matakai da ƙananan matakai. Bambanci na asali tsakanin masu watsawa guda biyu shine haɓaka ƙarfin mai ɗauka da sigina masu daidaitawa.

Hoto (a) yana nuna zanen toshe na mai watsa AM mai girma.

 

Toshe zane na Babban matakin AM mai watsawa

 

An zana hoto (a) don watsa sauti. A cikin babban matakin watsawa, ana ƙara ƙarfin sigina mai ɗaukar hoto da daidaitawa kafin a yi amfani da su zuwa matakin na'ura, kamar yadda aka nuna a adadi (a). A cikin ƙananan matakan daidaitawa, ƙarfin siginar shigarwa guda biyu na matakin mai daidaitawa ba a haɓaka ba. Ana samun ikon watsawa da ake buƙata daga mataki na ƙarshe na mai watsawa, mai ƙara ƙarfin ƙarfin aji C.

 

Daban-daban sassa na adadi (a) su ne:

 

  • Mai ɗaukar motsi oscillator
  • Amplifier buffer
  • Mitar yawaita
  • Amfani da wutar lantarki
  • Sarkar sauti
  • Moduated class C amplifier

Oscillator mai ɗaukar hoto

Oscillator mai ɗaukar kaya yana haifar da siginar mai ɗauka, wanda ke cikin kewayon RF. Mitar mai ɗauka koyaushe yana da girma sosai. Saboda yana da matukar wahala a samar da mitoci masu yawa tare da ingantaccen mitar kwanciyar hankali, oscillator mai ɗaukar hoto yana haifar da ƙananan maɓalli tare da mitar mai ɗauka da ake buƙata.

 

Ana ninka wannan ƙananan mitar mitar ta hanyar mitar mai yawa don samun mitar mai ɗauka da ake buƙata.

 

Bugu da ari, ana iya amfani da oscillator crystal a wannan mataki don samar da ƙananan mitar mai ɗaukar nauyi tare da mafi kyawun kwanciyar hankali. Matakan ninka mitar sannan yana ƙara mitar mai ɗauka zuwa ƙimar da ake buƙata.

Amplifier Buffer

Manufar buffer amplifier shine ninki biyu. Da farko yayi daidai da ƙarfin fitarwa na oscillator mai ɗaukar hoto tare da shigar da ma'aunin mita, mataki na gaba na oscillator mai ɗaukar hoto. Sannan ya keɓance mai ɗaukar hoto oscillator da mitar mai yawa.

 

Ana buƙatar wannan don kada mai haɓakawa ya zana babban halin yanzu daga oscillator mai ɗaukar hoto. Idan wannan ya faru, mitar oscillator mai ɗaukar kaya ba zai tsaya tsayayye ba.

Yawan Matsala

Matsakaicin yawan mitar siginar mai ɗaukar hoto, wanda mai ɗaukar hoto oscillator ya haifar, yanzu ana amfani da shi zuwa mitar mitar ta hanyar ƙarar buffer. Wannan matakin kuma ana kiransa da janareta masu jituwa. Yawan mitar mitar yana haifar da jituwa mafi girma na mitar oscillator mai ɗauka. Matsakaicin mitar da'irar da'ira ce wacce za'a iya daidaitawa zuwa mitar mai ɗauka da ake buƙata wanda za'a watsa.

Power Amplifier

Sannan ana ƙara ƙarfin siginar mai ɗauka a matakin ƙara ƙarfin wuta. Wannan shine ainihin abin da ake buƙata na babban matakin watsawa. Ajin C na ƙara ƙarfin wutar lantarki yana ba da babban ƙarfin halin yanzu na siginar mai ɗauka a fitowar sa.

Sarkar Audio

Ana samun siginar mai jiwuwa da za a watsa daga makirufo, kamar yadda aka nuna a adadi (a). Amplifier ɗin direba mai jiwuwa yana ƙara ƙarfin wannan siginar. Wannan haɓakawa ya zama dole don fitar da ƙarar ƙarfin sauti. Na gaba, ajin A ko ajin B na ƙara ƙarfin siginar sauti.

Moduated Class C Amplifier

Wannan shine matakin fitarwa na mai watsawa. Ana amfani da siginar sauti mai daidaitawa da siginar mai ɗauka, bayan ƙara ƙarfin wuta, zuwa wannan matakin daidaitawa. Modulation yana faruwa a wannan matakin. Amplifier ajin C kuma yana ƙara ƙarfin siginar AM zuwa ƙarfin watsawa da aka sake samu. Wannan siginar daga ƙarshe an wuce zuwa eriya., wanda ke haskaka siginar zuwa sararin watsawa.

 

Toshe zane na Ƙananan Matsayin Mai watsa AM

 

Mai ƙaramar watsawar AM ɗin da aka nuna a cikin adadi (b) yayi kama da babban mai watsawa, sai dai ikon mai ɗauka da siginar sauti ba a ƙara su ba. Waɗannan sigina guda biyu ana amfani da su kai tsaye zuwa ga gyare-gyaren ƙarfin ƙarfin ajin C.

 

Modulation yana faruwa a matakin, kuma ana ƙara ƙarfin siginar da aka daidaita zuwa matakin ƙarfin da ake buƙata. Eriya mai watsawa sannan tana watsa siginar.

Haɗin kai Matsayin Fitowa Da Eriya

Matsayin fitarwa na madaidaicin ƙarfin ƙarfin ajin C yana ciyar da siginar zuwa eriya mai watsawa.

 

Don canja wurin mafi girman iko daga matakin fitarwa zuwa eriya ya zama dole cewa impedance na sassan biyu ya dace. Don wannan , ana buƙatar hanyar sadarwar da ta dace.

 

Daidaita tsakanin su biyun yakamata ya zama cikakke a kowane mitoci masu watsawa. Kamar yadda ake buƙatar daidaitawa a mitoci daban-daban, inductor da capacitors waɗanda ke ba da impedance daban-daban a mitoci daban-daban ana amfani da su a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar da suka dace.

 

Dole ne a gina hanyar sadarwar da ta dace ta amfani da waɗannan abubuwan da ba a so. Ana nuna wannan a ƙasa Hoto (c).

 

Biyu Pi Matching Network

 

Cibiyar sadarwar da ta dace da ake amfani da ita don haɗa matakin fitarwa na mai aikawa da eriya ana kiranta sau biyu π-network.

 

Ana nuna wannan hanyar sadarwa a adadi (c). Ya ƙunshi inductor guda biyu, L1 da L2 da capacitors biyu, C1 da C2. An zaɓi ƙimar waɗannan abubuwan haɗin gwiwa kamar abin shigar da hanyar sadarwa tsakanin 1 da 1'. An nuna a cikin adadi (c) yana daidaita tare da ƙarancin fitarwa na matakin fitarwa na mai watsawa.

 

Bugu da ari, abin da ake fitarwa na cibiyar sadarwa yana daidaitawa tare da impedance na eriya.

 

Cibiyar sadarwa mai daidaitawa sau biyu π kuma tana tace abubuwan da ba'a so na mitar da ke bayyana a fitowar matakin karshe na mai watsawa.

 

Fitowar na'urar ƙara ƙarfin ƙarfin aji C na iya ƙunsar mafi girman jituwa, kamar na biyu da na uku, waɗanda ba a so sosai.

 

An saita martanin mitar hanyar sadarwar da ta dace ta yadda waɗannan manyan haɗin gwiwar da ba'a so ba su kasance gaba ɗaya, kuma siginar da ake so kawai yana haɗe da eriya..

AM ko FM Transmitter? Babban Bambance-bambance 

Eriyar da take a ƙarshen sashin watsawa, tana watsa kalaman da aka tsara. A cikin wannan babi, bari mu tattauna game da masu watsa AM da FM.

AM Wajan

AM watsawa yana ɗaukar siginar mai jiwuwa azaman shigarwa kuma yana ba da igiyar muryar sauyawa zuwa eriya azaman fitarwa da za a watsa. Ana nuna zane-zane na mai watsa AM a cikin hoto mai zuwa.

 

 

Ana iya bayanin aikin watsawar AM kamar haka: 

 

  • Ana aika siginar mai jiwuwa daga fitowar makirufo zuwa mai kara haske, wanda ke haɓaka matakin siginar daidaitawa.
  • RF oscillator yana haifar da siginar mai ɗauka.
  • Dukansu modulating da mai jigilar siginar an aika su zuwa AM modulator.
  • Ana amfani da ƙarfin kara ƙarfi don ƙara matakan ƙarfin rawanin AM. Daga karshe aka wuce da wannan igiyar zuwa eriya don yadawa.

Mai watsa FM

Mai watsa FM shi ne ɗayan naúrar, wanda ke ɗaukar siginar mai jiwuwa azaman shigarwa kuma yana ba da igiyar FM zuwa eriya azaman fitarwa da za a watsa. Ana nuna zane na mai watsa FM a cikin wannan adadi mai zuwa.

 

 

Ana iya bayanin aikin watsa FM kamar haka:

 

  • Ana aika siginar mai jiwuwa daga fitowar makirufo zuwa mai kara haske, wanda ke haɓaka matakin siginar daidaitawa.
  • Ana wuce wannan siginar zuwa matattarar wucewa mai ƙarfi, wanda ke aiki azaman cibiyar sadarwar ƙarfafawa don tace kararrawa da haɓaka siginar zuwa ƙarar sauti.
  • Wannan siginar ana ci gaba dashi zuwa zangon modulator na FM.
  • Yankin oscillator yana haifar da babban jigilar mitar, wanda aka aika zuwa modulator tare da siginar gyaran fuska.
  • Ana amfani da matakai da yawa na ninki masu ƙaruwa don haɓaka ƙarfin aiki. Koda hakane, ƙarfin sigina bai isa ya watsa ba. Saboda haka, ana amfani da na'urar kara ƙarfin RF a ƙarshen ƙara ƙarfin siginar da aka tsara. Wannan fitowar da aka tsara ta FM an ƙarshe ta wuce zuwa eriyar don watsawa.
AM ko FM: Yadda za a Zaɓi Mafi kyawun Tsarin Watsa Labarai?

Kwatanta siginar AM da FM

Ana amfani da tsarin AM da FM duka a cikin aikace-aikacen kasuwanci da waɗanda ba na kasuwanci ba. Kamar watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo da watsa talabijin. Kowane tsari yana da nasa cancanta da rashin dacewa. A cikin aikace-aikace na musamman, tsarin AM zai iya dacewa da tsarin FM. Don haka su biyun suna da mahimmanci daidai da mahangar aikace-aikacen.

Amfanin tsarin FM akan tsarin AM

Girman kalaman FM ya kasance koyaushe. Wannan yana ba da masu tsara tsarin damar da za su cire amo daga siginar da aka karɓa. Ana yin hakan a cikin masu karɓar FM ta hanyar amfani da da'ira mai iyakance amplitude ta yadda za a danne hayaniyar da ke sama da iyakacin girman girman. Don haka, ana ɗaukar tsarin FM azaman tsarin garkuwar amo. Wannan ba zai yiwu ba a cikin tsarin AM saboda siginar tushe yana ɗaukar ta ta girman bambance-bambancen da kansa kuma ba za a iya canza ambulaf ɗin siginar AM ba.

 

Mafi yawan ƙarfin da ke cikin siginar FM ana ɗaukarsa ta ƙungiyoyin gefe. Don mafi girman ƙimar ma'aunin daidaitawa, mc, babban ɓangaren jimlar ƙarfin yana ƙunshe da makada na gefe, kuma siginar mai ɗauka ya ƙunshi ƙarancin ƙarfi. Sabanin haka, a cikin tsarin AM, kashi ɗaya bisa uku na jimlar ƙarfin da ke ɗauke da igiyoyi na gefe kuma kashi biyu bisa uku na jimlar ƙarfin yana ɓacewa ta hanyar nau'in ikon ɗauka.

 

- A cikin tsarin FM, ikon siginar da aka watsa ya dogara da girman siginar jigilar da ba a daidaita shi ba, don haka yana dawwama. Sabanin haka, a cikin tsarin AM, ikon ya dogara da ma'aunin daidaitawa ma. Matsakaicin ikon da aka yarda a cikin tsarin AM shine kashi 100 lokacin da ma yake haɗin kai. Irin wannan ƙuntatawa baya aiki int yanayin tsarin FM. Wannan saboda jimillar ƙarfi a cikin tsarin FM ya kasance mai zaman kansa daga ma'aunin daidaitawa, mf da karkacewar mitar fd. Don haka, amfani da wutar lantarki shine mafi kyawu a cikin tsarin FM.

 

A cikin tsarin AM, hanya ɗaya tilo ta rage hayaniya ita ce ƙara ƙarfin siginar da ake watsawa. Wannan aiki yana ƙara farashin tsarin AM. A cikin tsarin FM, zaku iya ƙara karkatar da mitar a cikin siginar mai ɗauka don rage amo. idan juzu'in mitar ya yi girma, to ana iya dawo da madaidaicin bambancin girman siginar bandeji cikin sauƙi. idan ƙetare mitar ƙanƙanta ne, amo 'na iya mamaye wannan bambance-bambancen kuma ba za a iya fassara ƙetare mitar zuwa bambancin girmansa daidai ba. Don haka, ta hanyar haɓaka sauye-sauye a cikin siginar FM, tasirin amo zai iya rage shi. Babu wani tanadi a tsarin AM don rage tasirin amo ta kowace hanya, ban da ƙara ƙarfin da ake watsawa.

 

A cikin siginar FM, tashoshin FM da ke kusa suna raba su da makada masu gadi. A cikin tsarin FM babu watsa sigina ta sararin bakan ko rukunin gadi. Don haka, da kyar babu wani tsangwama na tashoshin FM da ke kusa. Koyaya, a cikin tsarin AM, babu ƙungiyar gadi da aka tanadar tsakanin tashoshi biyu na kusa. Don haka, ana samun kutse na tashoshin rediyo na AM koyaushe sai dai idan siginar da aka karɓa ta yi ƙarfi sosai don murkushe siginar tashar da ke kusa.

Rashin amfanin tsarin FM akan tsarin AM

Akwai iyaka mara iyaka na maƙallan gefe a cikin siginar FM don haka ƙayyadaddun bandwidth na tsarin FM ba shi da iyaka. Tsarin bandwidth na tsarin FM yana iyakance ta hanyar mulkin Carson, amma har yanzu yana da girma sosai, musamman a WBFM. A cikin tsarin AM, bandwidth sau biyu ne kawai na mitar daidaitawa, wanda ya yi ƙasa da na WBFN. Wannan yana sa tsarin FM tsada fiye da tsarin AM.

 

Kayan aikin tsarin FM sun fi tsarin AM saboda hadadden tsarin tsarin FM; wannan wani dalili ne cewa tsarin FM sun fi tsadar tsarin AM.

 

Wurin karɓar tsarin FM ƙasa da tsarin AM saboda haka tashoshi FM suna iyakance ga manyan birane yayin da ana iya karɓar tashoshin rediyo na AM a ko'ina cikin duniya. Tsarin FM yana watsa sigina ta hanyar yada gani, wanda nisa tsakanin eriya mai watsawa da karɓa bai kamata ya yi yawa ba. A cikin tsarin AM ana watsa siginar gajerun tashoshin bandeji ta hanyar shimfidar yanayi waɗanda ke nuna raƙuman radiyo a kan wani yanki mai faɗi.

Menene Daban-daban Nau'ikan Masu watsa AM?

Saboda amfani daban-daban, AM Transmitter ya kasu kashi-kashi zuwa farar hula AM Transmitter (DIY da ƙananan masu watsa AM) da AM na kasuwanci (na rediyon soja ko gidan rediyon AM na ƙasa).

 

Mai watsa AM na Kasuwanci shine ɗayan samfuran wakilci a cikin filin RF. 

 

Irin wannan na'urar watsa shirye-shiryen gidan rediyo na iya amfani da manyan eriyar watsa shirye-shiryenta na AM (guyed mast, da sauransu) don watsa sigina a duniya. 

 

Saboda AM ba za a iya toshe shi cikin sauƙi ba, ana amfani da tashar AM na kasuwanci don farfagandar siyasa ko farfagandar dabarun soja tsakanin ƙasar.

 

Kama da mai watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shiryen FM, mai watsa watsa shirye-shiryen AM kuma an tsara shi tare da fitowar wuta daban-daban. 

 

Ɗaukar FMUSER a matsayin misali, jerin tallan kasuwancin su na AM sun haɗa da mai watsa 1KW AM, 5KW AM mai watsawa, mai watsa 10kW AM, mai watsa 25kW AM, watsa 50kW AM, mai watsa 100kW AM, da mai watsa 200kW AM. 

 

Waɗannan masu watsawa na AM an gina su ta ƙwararrun ma'aikatar gwamnati ta gilt, kuma suna da tsarin kula da nesa na AUI da ƙirar kayan haɗin kai, waɗanda ke tallafawa ci gaba da fitowar siginar AM mai inganci.

 

Koyaya, ba kamar ƙirƙirar gidan rediyon FM ba, gina tashar watsa AM ​​yana da tsada. 

 

Ga masu watsa shirye-shirye, fara sabon tashar AM yana da tsada, gami da:

 

- Kudin siye da jigilar kayan aikin rediyon AM. 

- Kudi don ɗaukar ma'aikata da shigar da kayan aiki.

- Kudin amfani da lasisin watsa shirye-shiryen AM.

- da sauransu. 

 

Don haka, don tashoshin rediyo na ƙasa ko na soja ana buƙatar ingantaccen mai siyarwa tare da mafita ta tsayawa ɗaya cikin gaggawa don wadatar kayan watsa shirye-shiryen AM masu zuwa:

 

Babban wutar lantarki AM (daruruwan dubunnan ikon fitarwa kamar 100KW ko 200KW)

Tsarin eriya na AM (eriyar AM da hasumiya ta rediyo, na'urorin haɗi na eriya, tsayayyen layin watsawa, da sauransu)

AM gwajin lodi da kayan taimako. 

Da dai sauransu.

 

Amma ga sauran masu watsa shirye-shiryen, mafi ƙarancin farashi ya fi jan hankali, misali:

 

- Saya AM Transmitter tare da ƙaramin ƙarfi (kamar mai watsa AM 1kW)

- Sayi mai watsa watsa shirye-shiryen AM mai amfani

- Hayar hasumiya ta rediyo AM wacce ta riga ta wanzu

- da sauransu.

 

A matsayin mai ƙera tare da cikakkiyar sarkar samar da kayan aikin gidan rediyon AM, FMUSER zai taimaka ƙirƙirar mafi kyawun mafita daga kai zuwa ƙafar ƙafa gwargwadon kasafin ku, zaku iya samun cikakkun kayan aikin gidan rediyon AM daga babban ƙarfin AM mai watsawa AM zuwa nauyin gwajin AM da sauran kayan aiki. , danna nan don ƙarin koyo game da mafita na rediyo FMUSER AM.

 

Farar hula AM Transmitter sun fi gama gari fiye da mai watsa AM na kasuwanci tunda suna da ƙarancin farashi.

 

Ana iya raba su da yawa zuwa mai watsawa na DIY AM da ƙarancin wutar lantarki. 

 

Don masu watsa shirye-shiryen DIY AM, wasu masu sha'awar rediyo yawanci suna amfani da allo mai sauƙi don walda abubuwan da suka haɗa da sauti a ciki, eriya, transfoma, oscillator, layin wuta da layin ƙasa.

 

Saboda sauƙin aikinsa, mai watsa DIY AM na iya samun girman rabin dabino kawai. 

 

Shi ya sa wannan nau'in watsa AM ɗin ke biyan dala goma sha biyu kacal, ko kuma ana iya yin shi kyauta. Za ka iya kaucewa bi online tutorial video to DIY daya.

 

Ana siyar da masu watsa masu ƙarancin wutar lantarki akan $100. Sau da yawa nau'in rak ne ko kuma suna bayyana a cikin ƙaramin akwatin ƙarfe na rectangular. Waɗannan masu watsawa sun fi rikitarwa fiye da masu watsawa na DIY AM kuma suna da ƙanana da yawa.

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    FMUSER INTERNATIONAL GROUP LIMITED.

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